Written by Ben Bunting: BA(Hons), PGCert.
There are several different studies that have examined the effect of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and its derived molecules on fertility. Some of these studies have looked at the effect of NMN on spindle assembly and egg quality. However, some of them have not found conclusive results. Nevertheless, the data that do exist show that NMN supplementation can help improve ovulation.
What is NMN?
NMN is a type of nucleotide derived from ribose, nicotinamide riboside, and niacin. Enzymes in the human body use NMN to make nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
Nicotinamide mononucleotides are naturally occurring compounds found in fruits and vegetables. They can also be consumed as supplements in order to boost NAD+ levels in the human body. Nicotinamide mononucleotide is also called NR can be degraded by the enzyme CD38. In addition, NR can be inhibited by CD38-IN-78c, which helps protect NMN.
NMN has been found to help alleviate age-related conditions, and may even reverse them. This natural compound is essential for cellular metabolism and plays a pivotal role in DNA repair and cell growth. Moreover, the synthesis of NR is crucial in the body's energy production.
In addition to its anti-aging benefits, nicotinamide mononucléotide can also help treat diseases related to high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. It can also improve skin health and prevent aging. Furthermore, it improves the function of the insulin-secreting beta cells.
NMN has many important functions in the human body, and a deficiency in the substance is considered a major cause of aging and disability. Studies show that NMN supplementation can increase NAD+ levels and delay the onset of age-related metabolic disorders.
What is NAD+?
NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a central coenzyme that is found in all living cells. It consists of two nucleotides that are joined together by phosphate groups. One of the nucleotides contains an adenine nucleobase while the other contains nicotinamide.
NAD+ is synthesized in the human body through a process called biosynthesis. This process involves breaking down the fatty acids in the body and converting them to NAD+. NAD+ can be found in food sources and in supplements. It also comes from bacteria found in the mouth and the intestines.
To increase the levels of NAD+, people should follow a healthy lifestyle. Eating low-fat diets, fasting, and exercise are all good ways to boost NAD+ levels. Consuming high-fat diets and being obese are known to lower NAD+ levels and accelerate the aging process. Furthermore, aerobic exercise is a good way to increase NAD+ levels in the body. It also helps increase levels of DNA-rebuilding proteins, so it's a good idea to exercise on a regular basis.
Another natural way to increase the levels of NAD+ in the body is by taking intravenous supplements. This is the safest and most effective way to replenish NAD+ in the body. It ensures that every molecule is fully bioavailable, meaning it will be absorbed and used by the body as efficiently as possible.
NMN, a precursor of NAD+, can be beneficial to the human body. It can rejuvenate oocytes and improve fertility. As women grow older, their fertility begins to decline. Most of the decline is related to poor oocyte quality, but other factors may also affect fertility.
NMN has a variety of functions in the body, including cellular metabolism, DNA repair, autophagy, cell survival, and immunity. Its levels decrease as we age, which is associated with cardiovascular disease, dementia, obesity, and other diseases. Researchers have also linked reduced NAD+ levels to infertility. In a mouse model, supplementation of NMN increased the number of live births and reduced the time needed to achieve pregnancy.
NMN supplementation has also been shown to improve the development of embryos. One study found that aged mice receiving two grams of NMN per liter of water for four weeks had higher blastocyst formation than young mice. However, the results were not consistent across both age groups. This suggests that NMN supplementation may not have the same therapeutic effect on younger mice as it does on older mice.
Elevating NAD+ levels may benefit pre-implantation embryo development. In a study using matured oocytes of both young and aged females, supplementation of the oocytes with NMN increased oocyte quality and blastocyst formation. However, the treatment did not affect the oocytes of young females.
The treatment also increased the proportion of oocytes that were rich in flavins and NAD(P)H. These findings suggest that NMN may help delay or reverse menopause. Although further research is needed to confirm these findings, the promising benefits of NMN-derived molecules in nad+ supplements for fertility should not be underestimated.
Research on NMN-derived molecules shows that they improve energy levels and metabolism, which are both important for fertility. In one study, an elderly woman who had gone through menopause started ovulating again when given NMN. Other studies have demonstrated the benefits of sirtuin-boosting molecules on fertility. In mice, NMN improved DNA stability and decreased defects in meiotic division, thereby improving the chances of conception.
NMN's effect on egg quality
NMN supplementation has been shown to improve egg quality and ovulation rate in both healthy and infertile women. It also increased the number of blastocyst cells, an indicator of successful implantation. It can reverse the age-related decline in egg quality.
NMN increases levels of NAD+, an enzyme that supports the cellular function of egg cells. It also reverses the aging process in ovaries and improves egg quality. In mice, NMN improved age-related diseases, including premature aging, and did not harm the offspring of mice treated with it. Human studies are needed to confirm these results.
Oocyte quality is essential for fertilization and subsequent embryonic development. Age-related decline in the oocyte and follicle is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and infertility. In humans, NMN can improve oocyte quality in aged women, a potential benefit for artificial insemination and other reproductive technologies.
NMN's effect on spindle assembly
NMN is a building block for NAD+, which is needed for spindle assembly. This nutrient helps several proteins repair and maintain DNA, and it also helps regulate the epigenome, which determines which genes turn on or off. NAD+ levels decrease in the body during aging, which results in fewer cells that are able to repair DNA damage. This is particularly important for egg cells, which are very sensitive to DNA damage.
In addition to regulating spindle assembly, NMN also affects oocyte meiosis, which involves the migration of the spindle. In one study, the effect of NMN on the meiotic spindle assembly was evaluated by staining F-actin with phalloidin-TRITC. The F-actin showed a strong fluorescence signal in control oocytes but was weak in heat-stressed oocytes. However, supplementation of NMN restored actin dynamics in oocytes.
The NMN treatment also improved cell number of early embryos, a sign of successful implantation after in vitro fertilization. Researchers injected NMN into drinking water for two, seven, or fourteen days in old female mice. The results showed that the mice injected with NMN developed better-quality blastocysts and oocytes, and they grew larger litters than controls. The effects were even more pronounced when the NMN treatment was given at a low dose.
NAD+ and Fertility
Although it is still unclear what role NAD+ plays in fertility, the current findings point to the possibility that it may help females with age-related infertility. In mice, NMN supplements significantly increased NAD+ levels in aged oocytes and restored the oocyte's quality and ovulation rate. This treatment may also help with the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
This treatment is not without risks. It does not involve oral supplements and is completely absorbed into the bloodstream. Several types of IV therapy are available to address deficiencies and enhance cellular function. You may need to discuss the procedure with your doctor before beginning. If your fertility practitioner recommends an IV drip to treat NAD deficiency, it is recommended that you follow their recommendations.
Having a high amount of NAD is essential for healthy reproduction. It helps prevent DNA damage and maintain the telomere. It also helps in the production of energy in the body. Low levels of NAD+ can lead to several age-related conditions, including infertility. Increasing the levels of this crucial compound can help you slow the aging process and avoid several risks that contribute to infertility.
NMN can be used in supplement forms to increase NAD+ levels in the body. It is a New Dietary Ingredient (NDI), but it has not been properly notified to the US Food and Drug Administration. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether NAD+ promotes fertility (safely) in humans.