Vitamin A : 30000mcg
An antioxidant that has demonstrated its ability to reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and help treat infertility from unknown causes.
Study: Ghyasvand, T., Goodarzi, M.T., Amiri, I., Karimi, J. and Ghorbani, M. (2015). Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men. International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine, [online] 13(12), pp.787–792. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827510/
Low amounts of vitamin A are found in the sperm of infertile men, whereas high levels are found in the sperm of men with normal, healthy semen.
Study: Ribeiro, J. (2018). Male Infertility: Reduction Of Free Radicals Per Action Of Carotenoids. Global Journal of Reproductive Medicine, [online] 4(1). Available at: https://juniperpublishers.com/gjorm/pdf/GJORM.MS.ID.555627.pdf
Vitamin D2 : 30mcg
A study observing birth rates between men given vitamin D and a placebo resulted in higher pregnancy rates for the vitamin D group.
Study: Blomberg Jensen, M., Lawaetz, J.G., Petersen, J.H., Juul, A. and Jørgensen, N. (2018). Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Semen Quality, Reproductive Hormones, and Live Birth Rate: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, [online] 103(3), pp.870–881. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/103/3/870/4590227?login=true
Vitamin D has long been associated with hormone health in men, and consistent results have demonstrated that vitamin D is positively associated with sperm health via the testis function and fertility.
Study: de Angelis, C., Galdiero, M., Pivonello, C., Garifalos, F., Menafra, D., Cariati, F., Salzano, C., Galdiero, G., Piscopo, M., Vece, A., Colao, A. and Pivonello, R. (2017). The role of vitamin D in male fertility: A focus on the testis. Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders, [online] 18(3), pp.285–305. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28667465/
Research has also identified vitamin D supplementation as being able to acheive a higher prevelance of pregnancies for couples needing reproductive assistance.
Study: Boisen, I.M., Bøllehuus Hansen, L., Mortensen, L.J., Lanske, B., Juul, A. and Blomberg Jensen, M. (2017). Possible influence of vitamin D on male reproduction. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, [online] 173, pp.215–222. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27693423/#:~:text=VDR%20mediates%20a%20non%2Dgenomic
Vitamin E : 300mg
When vitamin E is combined with selenium it reduced oxidative stress and improved semen quality.
Study: KESKES-AMMAR, L., FEKI-CHAKROUN, N., REBAI, T., SAHNOUN, Z., GHOZZI, H., HAMMAMI, S., ZGHAL, K., FKI, H., DAMAK, J. and BAHLOUL, A. (2003). SPERM OXIDATIVE STRESS AND THE EFFECT OF AN ORAL VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM SUPPLEMENT ON SEMEN QUALITY IN INFERTILE MEN. Archives of Andrology, 49(2), pp.83–94. Available here: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01485010390129269
Live birth rates have shown to be statistically higher when compared to placebo after 3 months of vitamin E supplementation.
Study: Matorras, R., Pérez-Sanz, J., Corcóstegui, B., Pérez-Ruiz, I., Malaina, I., Quevedo, S., Aspichueta, F., Crisol, L., Martinez-Indart, L., Prieto, B. and Expósito, A. (2020). Effect of vitamin E administered to men in infertile couples on sperm and assisted reproduction outcomes: a double-blind randomized study. F&S Reports, 1(3), pp.219–226. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666334120300775
A study using vitamin E as a sole tratment when compared to a placebo in infertile men with a 300mg daily dose over 6 months concluded that there were significant improvements of sperm motility and pregnancy rates.
Study: Parekattil, S.J. and Agarwal, A. (2012). Male Infertility: Contemporary Clinical Approaches, Andrology, ART & Antioxidants. [online] Google Books. Springer Science & Business Media. Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/books/edition/Male_Infertility/W8pplg2vbEUC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=Suleiman+SA
Further research notes an improvement of sperm concentrations in men with a low sperm count when vitmain A and E are taken together.
Study: Comhaire, F.H., Christophe, A.B., Zalata, A.A., Dhooge, W.S., Mahmoud, A.M.A. and Depuydt, C.E. (2000). The effects of combined conventional treatment, oral antioxidants and essential fatty acids on sperm biology in subfertile men. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), 63(3), pp.159–165. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0952327800901741
Folic Acid : 8500mcg
Men who are clinically subfertile saw a 74% increase in normal sperm count and clinically fertile men also saw a similar increase when treated with folic acid and zinc.
Study: Wong, W.Y., Merkus, H.M.W.M., Thomas, C.M.G., Menkveld, R., Zielhuis, G.A. and Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. (2002). Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertility and Sterility, 77(3), pp.491–498. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11872201/
There's a strong incidence of men who suffer from varicocele and those who are infertile. Those who have been varicoselectomized and received treatment with folic acid saw sperm quality improvements.
Study: Ovid.com. (2019). [online] Available at: https://insights.ovid.com/human-reproduction/hurep/2011/09/001/571-effect-folic-acid-administration-protamine/964/00004683
For men who suffer from oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (low sperm count, poor sperm movement and abnormal sperm shape) it has been demonstrated that folic and zinc supplementation improves development of sperm cells.
Study: Cochranelibrary.com. (2010). [Online] Available at: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/central/doi/10.1002/central/CN-01136593/full
Zinc : 15mg
This essential mineral has been identified as a hormone balancer which aids in the development of testosterone and plays an important role in sperm quality. Moreover, a zinc deficiency has a negative effect on the development of sperm. Additionally, zinc needs to be constantly provided through dietary intervention as it cannot be stored in the body.
Study: Fallah, A., Mohammad-Hasani, A. and Colagar, A.H. (2018). Zinc is an Essential Element for Male Fertility: A Review of Zn Roles in Men’s Health, Germination, Sperm Quality, and Fertilization. Journal of reproduction & infertility, [online] 19(2), pp.69–81. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010824/.
Zinc levels are high in the testes, and a deficiency of zinc is correlated with a decrease in male fertility.
Study: Chu, D.S. (2018). Zinc: A small molecule with a big impact on sperm function. PLOS Biology, 16(6), p.e2006204. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991634/
A zinc deficiency has been highlighted as a cause of hypogonadism in men, the study showed that a zinc restrictive diet significantly decreased testosterone levels in normal, healthy men. Reduced testosterone levels are associated with a loss of libido and sexual function.
Study: Prasad, A.S., Mantzoros, C.S., Beck, F.W.J., Hess, J.W. and Brewer, G.J. (1996). Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition, 12(5), pp.344–348. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8875519/
Study: Travison, T.G., Morley, J.E., Araujo, A.B., O’Donnell, A.B. and McKinlay, J.B. (2006). The Relationship between Libido and Testosterone Levels in Aging Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(7), pp.2509–2513. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16670164/
Selenium : 2mcg
A study in to selenium and vitamin E supplementation concluded that it is beneficial for those looking to improve sperm health and fertility.
Study: Moslemi, M.K. and Zargar, S.A. (2011). Selenium–vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and pregnancy rate. International Journal of General Medicine, p.99. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048346/
A selenium deficiency can reduce mood, muscle strength and has been connected with reduced fertility rates. A study conducted in Scotland demonstrated that selenium suplementation significantly increased sperm motility which helped men in the study conceive.
Study: Scott, R., MacPherson, A., Yates, R.W., Hussain, B. and Dixon, J. (1998). The effect of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility. British Journal of Urology, [online] 82(1), pp.76–80. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9698665/
It was observed in men who were struggling to conceive with their partners had low levels of zinc and selenium.
Study: Türk, S., Mändar, R., Mahlapuu, R., Viitak, A., Punab, M. and Kullisaar, T. (2014). Male infertility: Decreased levels of selenium, zinc and antioxidants. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 28(2), pp.179–185. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24462254/
D-Aspartic Acid : 2600mg
Those who suffer from male infertility have low concentrations of D-aspartic acid when compared to men with healthy sperm.
Study: D’Aniello, G., Ronsini, S., Guida, F., Spinelli, P. and D’Aniello, A. (2005). Occurrence of D-aspartic acid in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa: Possible role in reproduction. Fertility and Sterility, 84(5), pp.1444–1449. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16275242/
A trial including 30 infertile men supplemented D-aspartic acid for 90 days which resulted in significant increases of sperm concentrations which led to a significant rise of pregnancies within the group.
Study: D’Aniello, G., Ronsini, S., Notari, T., Grieco, N., Infante, V., D’Angel, N., Mascia, F., Fiore, M.M.D., Fisher, G. and D’Aniello, A. (2012). D-Aspartate, a Key Element for the Improvement of Sperm Quality. Advances in Sexual Medicine, [online] 02(04), pp.45–53. Available at: https://www.scirp.org/html/1-1990018_24016.htm
Analysis of D-aspartic acid, zinc and coenzyme-Q10 regarding fertility recorded improvements of sperm health and motility in both infertile and fertile men.
Study: Giacone, F., Condorelli, R.A., Mongioì, L.M., Bullara, V., La Vignera, S. and Calogero, A.E. (2016). In vitro effects of zinc, D-aspartic acid, and coenzyme-Q10 on sperm function. Endocrine, 56(2), pp.408–415. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27422792/
Ashwagandha : 675mg
A clinical trial investigating the effects of ashwagandha over a 3 month period for infertile men demonstrated a 167% increase of sperm count, a 53% increase of sperm volume and a 57% increase of sperm motility when compared to a placebo.
Study: Ambiye, V.R., Langade, D., Dongre, S., Aptikar, P., Kulkarni, M. and Dongre, A. (2013). Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, [online] 2013, pp.1–6. Available at: https://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/571420.pdf
Research in to the effects of ashwagandha on fertility rates for men under stress, who were heavy smokers, those who were infertile as well as fertile subjects saw a decrease in stress and an improvement of overall semen quality. The treatment also resulted in pregnancies.
Study: Mahdi, A.A., Shukla, K.K., Ahmad, M.K., Rajender, S., Shankhwar, S.N., Singh, V. and Dalela, D. (2011). Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility. [online] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Available at: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/576962/
Fenugreek : 600mg
A clinical trial of 80 infertile men between the ages of 20 and 30 received fenugreek treatment which resulted in elevated levels of testosterone and and fertility.
Study: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu. (n.d.). [online] Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.901.9112&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Using fenugreek for a period of 3 months increased testosterone levels as well as sperm motility and count.
Study: Maheshwari, A., Verma, N., Swaroop, A., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H.G., Tiwari, K. and Bagchi, D. (2017). Efficacy of FurosapTM, a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract, in Enhancing Testosterone Level and Improving Sperm Profile in Male Volunteers. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 14(1), pp.58–66. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5278660/
600mg of of fenugreek daily has demonstrated its ability to improve all aspects of male libido and has also been noted to increase testosterone.
Study: Steels, E., Rao, A. and Vitetta, L. (2011). Physiological Aspects of Male Libido Enhanced by Standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Mineral Formulation. Phytotherapy Research, p.n/a-n/a. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21312304/
N-Acetyl-Cysteine : 600mg
Research in to male fertility and N-Acetyl-Cysteine saw that 600mg taken daily for 3 months along with selenium improved semen quality by reducing oxidative stress.
Study: Barekat, F., Tavalaee, M., Deemeh, M.R., Bahreinian, M., Azadi, L., Abbasi, H., Rozbahani, S. and Nasr-Esfahani, M.H. (2016). A Preliminary Study: N-acetyl-L-cysteine Improves Semen Quality following Varicocelectomy. International Journal of Fertility & Sterility, [online] 10(1), pp.120–126. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845522/
In another clincial trial involving 50 infertile men, 600mg daily significantly increased sperm count, motility and testosterone.
Study: Jannatifar, R., Parivar, K., Roodbari, N.H. and Nasr-Esfahani, M.H. (2019). Effects of N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation on sperm quality, chromatin integrity and level of oxidative stress in infertile men. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 17(1). Available at: https://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12958-019-0468-9
Further studies involving 120 infertile men also reported significant increases in the volume, motility and viscosity of semen while oxidative stress was reduced.
Study: Ciftci, H., Verit, A., Savas, M., Yeni, E. and Erel, O. (2009). Effects of N-acetylcysteine on Semen Parameters and Oxidative/Antioxidant Status. Urology, 74(1), pp.73–76. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19428083/
Coenzyme Q10 : 300mg
Research in to the effectiveness of CoQ10 on infertile men reported significant increases in sperm concentrations and antioxidant status.
Study: Alahmar, A.T. (2019). The impact of two doses of coenzyme Q10 on semen parameters and antioxidant status in men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine, 46(3), pp.112–118. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736512/
A meta-analysis of 3 studies concluded that CoQ10 significantly increases sperm concentration and motility.
Study: Lafuente, R., González-Comadrán, M., Solà, I., López, G., Brassesco, M., Carreras, R. and Checa, M.A. (2013). Coenzyme Q10 and male infertility: a meta-analysis. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, [online] 30(9), pp.1147–1156. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3800531/
Research investigating the benefits of CoQ10 and fertility recorded significant improvements in sperm density, motility and morphology after 6 months supplementation.
Study: Safarinejad, M.R., Safarinejad, S., Shafiei, N. and Safarinejad, S. (2012). Effects of the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) on semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. The Journal of Urology, [online] 188(2), pp.526–531. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704112
Lycopene : 4mg
There's strong evidence that lycopene is a powerful antioxidant and in human trials over periods of 3 to 12 months lycopene improves sperm parameters and pregnancy rates.
Study: Agarwal, A., Durairajanayagam, D., Ong, C. and Prashast, P. (2014). Lycopene and male infertility. Asian Journal of Andrology, 16(3), p.420. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24675655/
Investigation in to the effectiveness of lycopene for male fertility in young healthy men over a 3 month period in the United Kingdom recorded statistically significant improvements of semen quality.
Study: Williams, E.A., Parker, M., Robinson, A., Pitt, S. and Pacey, A.A. (2019). A randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of lactolycopene on semen quality in healthy males. European Journal of Nutrition, 59(2), pp.825–833. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31591650/
The supplementation of lycopene for men with infertility saw significant improvements in fertility and resuted in pregnancies among the enrolled subjects.
Study: Gupta, N.P. and Kumar, R. (2002). International Urology and Nephrology, 34(3), pp.369–372.