Written by Ben Bunting: BA(Hons), PGCert.
Fecundity is the capacity of a woman or man to have children. This capacity is limited by various biological and behavioural constraints, including time lost during pregnancy and after delivery before fecundity resumes. Other limitations include the waiting period until conception, intrauterine mortality, sterility arising naturally with age, and sterility induced by a pathological condition. Biological constraints on the number of liveborn children are greatest when they are accompanied by variation in sexual behaviour.
Behavioural constraints on early childbearing
Early childbearing is often a desire for couples, but it may not be feasible for economic or social reasons. Biological constraints on early childbearing include the amount of time lost during pregnancy and after delivery before fecundity returns, as well as waiting times before conception. Other constraints may be related to a woman's age and sexual behaviour.
Several studies have examined the effects of early childbearing on children. Although there have been some conflicting findings, overall, the effects of early childbearing on children are comparable across different age groups. However, the results from a study comparing teenage mothers to women in their early 20s may underestimate the effects of early childbearing.
Fecundity has occupied an important place in demography since the first studies of population size. The first estimates of population growth were made in the nineteenth century, and they were based on the difference between annual births and deaths. A few decades later, the concept of demography was developed and began to be studied in scientific studies. The population growth rate, also known as the CAGR, is the ratio of annual births to annual deaths. Net migration is the other component of population growth.
Demographers have used the concept of fecundability to estimate the likelihood of conception. Since the birth rate varies greatly from one place to another, it's necessary to estimate fecundity based on the whole distribution of births. Since conception rates decrease month by month, there must be an underlying cause. The decreasing probability of conception is not a decrease in fertility or sexual relations; it is a result of a gradual selection of the least fertile couples.
Fecundity and natural fertility in humans depend on a variety of factors, including nutrition, consanguinity, sexual behavior, and the age of the parents. The number of children a parent has is also strongly related to the number of children the next generation will have. Other factors that affect fecundity and natural fertility include religion, age, and family size.
Reproductive capacity can be affected by environmental factors and environmental degradation. This makes it difficult to determine trends over time. Repeated surveys are therefore recommended to determine the true trends over time.
Evolutionary demographic models
The field of reproductive biology has long focused on the relationship between biology and demography, a connection that Darwin reaffirmed when he read Malthus. Recent studies have reinforced these connections, including the work of Kingsley Davis, Judith Blake, and Robert Potter. These authors looked at proximate determinants of fertility, as well as mathematical models of conception and birth. Other researchers have focused on gender roles and hormonal conditioning, while Richard Udry has addressed population association in the United States.
While Demographers are largely resistant to evolutionary perspectives, behavioral ecologists and evolutionary anthropologists are more likely to accept these ideas. Their central challenge is to show the relevance of these approaches to changes in human fertility and demography. The authors note that while evolutionary models are useful for studying the distribution of characteristics within a group, they cannot account for the relationship between demographic behavior and fertility.
Human fertility has been closely related to the size of a parent's family. Some factors have been associated with higher fertility, such as religiosity, desire for children, and maternal support. Conversely, others have been associated with decreased fertility, including increased male and female age, wealth, education, and cost of housing.
The size of a woman's body is a key factor in determining fecundity. Females with a large body size are more fertile than smaller women. This gives them a selective advantage. The genetic makeup of human populations depends on body size and the environment in which they live.
Demographers define fecundity differently. For them, fecundity is the likelihood of pregnancy in a population, or the chances of conceiving. Fecundity is also dependent on sexual patterns and the availability of a potential mating partner. Whether or not a woman can have children is determined by societal factors and the way that a couple chooses to conceive.
Energy balance in the human body consists of several components, such as diet, exercise, and sleep. These components interact to affect body weight. Thus, intervention research to improve energy balance in humans must take these interactions into account. For example, increasing physical activity may not be as effective as simply allowing subjects to eat whatever they want.
Human physiology complies with the first law of thermodynamics. This law states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Therefore, the rate of change in the body's energy balance, or ES, equals the difference between the rates of EI and EO. In addition, the human body has evolved to be able to respond to transient changes in energy intake.
Relationship between wealth and fertility
There is a strong relationship between wealth and natural fertility in humans. Wealth is an important source of food energy and is directly related to fertility. Women with more wealth are more likely to have children than those who have lower levels of wealth. Wealth also correlates with better child survival and reduced birth intervals. In addition, wealth accumulated through objects is often associated with higher reproductive output.
The problem is that children face intense competition with their peers for resources. Hence, if a parent continues to invest heavily in their offspring, the children will be of higher quality. Children, however, are limited in numbers due to finite resources. Therefore, wealth and fertility are linked in an unbalanced way.
This study aims to answer this question by comparing the total fertility rate of humans in 1975 to that of the same groups in 2005. It also looked at the human development index (HDI) - a measure of socio-economic development. This index is based on the United Nations' Human Development Index (HDI) and measures the number of children per woman.
However, despite the potential relationship between wealth and fertility, the evidence is not strong enough to prove a causal relationship between the two. The only way to confirm a direct link between wealth and fertility is through longitudinal data. These can be used to better understand reproductive decision-making. Compared to cross-sectional data, longitudinal data are useful in interpreting this relationship because they are based on the longitudinal nature of fertility decisions. This allows for differential effects of wealth at different levels of socioeconomic development.
Nevertheless, there are some interesting variations in the relationship between wealth and fertility. Wealth and fertility are associated with changes in preferences over reproductive careers. Women with high wages are more likely to forgo childbearing and to pursue a career rather than raising a family.
Fecundity is the ability of an individual to conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. It is also known as fecundity capacity. There are two models for fecundity, the homogeneous and the heterogeneous. The former assumes that fecundity is constant throughout life, while the latter assumes that there is a variable rate according to Henry's beta distribution. In both models, fecundity is higher at younger age groups and lower at older ages.
Fecundity is influenced by several factors, including body size, environmental conditions, and choice of mating partner. The former determines reproductive performance, while the latter affects the number of offspring an individual can have. The latter depends on body mass disparity, dispersal capacity, and the ratio of combined offspring mass to maternal mass. Larger females have higher fecundity than smaller females.
The general curve for fecundity has been calculated based on several studies. A woman with a partner has a twenty-to-two percent chance of getting pregnant within a year. If she is sterile for the first 12 months, she has a thirty percent chance of conceiving after two years. If she is sterile for 24 months, the probability drops to one eighth of the expected rate.
A cultural transmission model suggests that a person's socioeconomic status may affect his or her natural fertility. Higher socioeconomic status will result in a late age at first reproduction, while lower socioeconomic status will see a slight decline in fertility.