Written by Ben Bunting: BA(Hons), PGCert.
Selenium is a very important mineral for the human body. It plays an important role in the function of the thyroid hormone. It is also known as alpha-tocotrienol. In addition, it also plays an important role in the production of anti-oxidants in the body.
Selenium is an essential micronutrient that is found in many parts of the body, including the thyroid gland. Selenium is a critical component of the thyroid's endocrine function and plays a vital role in signaling transduction pathways. It is found in high concentrations in the thyroid and is particularly important for thyroid hormone metabolism and antioxidant function. Selenium is important for thyroid health, and a deficiency of selenium can lead to autoimmune thyroiditis. Supplementation of selenium has been associated with reduced levels of antithyroperoxidase antibodies, improved ultrasound features, and a better quality of life in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.
Despite the fact that selenium is essential for endocrine function and signaling pathways, it is toxic when consumed in excess quantities. In particular, selenium is found in the thyroid gland, where it participates in the formation of antioxidant enzymes and deiodinases. These enzymes function to protect thyrocytes and maintain the thyroid's normal levels of hormones.
Selenium is also known to modulate immune response. A study of 492 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism found that selenium addition to their antithyroid drugs reduced the incidence of antithyroid drug failures and improved quality of life. The CATALYST trial, which is currently underway, is aimed at studying the effects of selenium supplementation on thyroid disease. The study is expected to be completed in 2018.
Selenium is found in a variety of food sources, with the main source being food. The amount in food varies by region, climate, and food types. Epidemiological data show that Se deficiency rates are high worldwide. Although selenium is not toxic at normal levels, excess amounts may be toxic and cause endocrine system problems, including the development of Type 2 diabetes.
Alpha-tocotrienols are a group of plant-derived nonenzymatic small organic molecules. These compounds are known to have anti-oxidant properties and have important roles in a variety of cellular processes, including DNA repair, antioxidant defense, and detoxification of xenobiotics. They are also found naturally in many foods.
Alpha-tocopherols and tocotrienols have beneficial effects on DKD patients, although the study was small and did not include additional biomarkers. Other intervention studies and preclinical models of diabetic nephropathy have shown beneficial effects on renal parameters. In addition, vitamin E may have positive effects on cardiovascular and inflammatory complications in diabetes.
Alpha-tocopherol is an antioxidant that can inhibit the formation of LDL cholesterol. It is important for atherosclerosis prevention. It inhibits leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and vascular endothelial dysfunction. It has been shown to inhibit the formation of plaques in the arteries and prevent atherosclerosis. Vitamin E is available in a number of forms, including dry powder. Some forms can be absorbed orally, while others can be applied directly to the skin.
The antioxidant system is vital to maintaining the proper balance of oxidants and protecting the body from microbial infections and disease. Inflammatory conditions can be mitigated by enhancing the production of antioxidant enzymes, and it is important for the body to protect itself against oxidative damage.
Antioxidant defence system
The antioxidant defence system is an integral part of the body's functioning and involves several types of antioxidants - enzymatic and non-enzymatic - which can be expanded to protect organs from free radicals. The main way in which this system works is by reducing the generation of ROS, a byproduct of oxidative stress. Selenoproteins and selenoenzymes have been found to suppress the generation of ROS.
Selenium is an important oligoelement with antioxidant properties. It is increasingly used to treat thyroid disorders, including Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, differentiated thyroid cancer, and endemic goiter. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species are suspected to trigger thyroid disorders.
Selenium is involved in several important endocrine functions, including antioxidant metabolism and detoxification. Numerous studies have shown that selenium increases the activity of endocrine-secreted hormones and may reduce the risk of certain cancers. Selenium is essential for the immune system and plays multiple roles in cellular signalling. It is also involved in the metabolism of thyroid hormones.
Various selenoproteins have been identified in mammals. The glutathione peroxidase enzyme, for instance, is one such enzyme. Its activity in the body is significantly reduced in selenium-deficient animals. This enzyme may remove hydrogen peroxide from the cell membranes, which can cause oxidative damage. The role of glutathione peroxidase is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be important for oxidative defence.
Pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis
There are a number of factors that may contribute to the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. One possible cause is the presence of the trace metal selenium. Selenium is known to be a strong antioxidant and may protect the thyroid gland from damage. The mineral may also influence thyroid function, especially if it is deficient.
Selenium is an important trace element that was first identified in the early 1800s. It is a naturally occurring mineral and is present in human blood and tissues. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, and antioxidant properties. It plays an important role in metabolism, immune-endocrine function, and cellular homeostasis. It is particularly abundant in the thyroid gland where it forms selenoproteins.
Several studies have shown a link between selenium and thyroid disease. Santos et al. showed a positive correlation between selenium and NFE2L2 promoter genotypes. Selenium is an important component of the endoplasmic reticulum and plays a role in glycolytic metabolism.
Although the pathogenesis of Hashimoto''s thyroiditis remains largely unexplored, evidence suggests that selenium may play a role in the development of the disease. However, more studies are needed to determine whether selenium can reduce the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease.
A recent study found that selenium can reduce the presence of thyroid antibodies. In addition, it helps improve blood flow and has positive effects on immune health. Selenium also helps maintain a balanced mood.
Effects of selenium supplementation in Graves' disease
Researchers from Germany focused their attention on Graves' disease, a condition in which the immune system attacks thyroid cells, causing transient hyperthyroidism and a variety of other symptoms. The selenium supplementation helped the patients improve their quality of life, slowing the progression of their disease.
The study included randomized controlled trials on patients with AITD, hyperthyroidism, and abnormal thyroid function. It excluded unpublished studies of patients with other diseases or those who had not participated in an RCT. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software.
Selenium contributes to thyroid hormone synthesis and helps the thyroid maintain integrity under oxidative stress. It also improves immunity and protects the thyroid's tissue. Although selenium supplementation may improve the thyroid's function, it has not been proven to reduce the incidence of overt hypothyroidism.
In addition to a positive effect on thyroid function, selenium supplementation also improves eye health. Children with hyperthyroidism can develop eye problems. In this study, children with autoimmune thyroid disease were treated with methimazole and selenium, which improved thyroid function. Methimazole combined with selenium also reduced TRAb and FT4 levels, thereby improving the children's symptoms.
Although there are multiple risk factors for GD, selenium is thought to be an important nutrient for those who have it. Low selenium intake has been linked to increased susceptibility to and severity of the disease. Selenium has many pleotropic effects and may also improve autoimmune inflammation.
Selenium, a micronutrient found in foods, is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. It works with iodine to activate the selenium-dependent iodothyronine deiodinases. Selenium deficiency is associated with the development of thyroid cancer, hypothyroidism, and Hashimoto's disease.
Selenium is found naturally in soil and some foods. Brazil nuts, ham, beef, pork, and spinach are all rich sources of selenium. Other foods rich in selenium include brown rice, oatmeal, lentils, cashews, bananas, and some dairy products.
Selenium is found in thyroid tissue where it plays a crucial role in thyroid enzymes. In addition, selenium deficiency is associated with suboptimal thyroid function and thyroid disease. Selenium supplementation reduces thyroid antibodies and improves quality of life in autoimmune thyroiditis patients.
In patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, selenium supplementation significantly reduces TPO-Ab levels. The effect on TPO-Ab is greater when the level is high. Selenium also improves overall wellbeing. Moreover, selenium is thought to increase the activity of natural killer cells and activated T-cells, two types of white blood cells that help the immune response to infection and disease.