Written by Ben Bunting: BA(Hons), PGCert.
This article will discuss the Mechanisms and Side Effects of Melatonin on Male Fertility. It will also address the protective effects of melatonin on sperm and testicular function. You'll also learn what happens in a woman's body when she's exposed to night light. But before we discuss these effects, we must understand the mechanisms of melatonin.
Side effects of melatonin on male fertility
Studies have shown that melatonin supplements may improve male fertility. Studies have found that fertile men have higher levels of the hormone, which protects sperms from oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Sperms are crucial for healthy conception and the future development of the fetus. In addition, melatonin is involved in the glucose metabolism of the testes and may be effective therapy for male infertility caused by diabetes.
However, the role of melatonin in male reproduction remains controversial. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which six milligrams of melatonin were given to men every day at 1700 hours for one month found no significant effects on testosterone, LH, and FSH secretion. Other research has shown that melatonin is not harmful, as it does not inhibit male fertility.
Researchers have studied the effects of melatonin on sperm motility and the ratio of rapid to slow cells. These effects were observed in normozoospermic male subjects, as well as in males with iOAT. However, melatonin treatment did not have a significant impact on compaction, a key factor in male infertility. They also found that melatonin pretreatment did not reduce the number of compaction-induced sperm cells.
Researchers have also discovered that melatonin secretion is controlled by the pineal gland during the dark hours of the night. Despite being predominantly synthesized by the pineal gland, it can also be produced in the retina, the gastrointestinal tract, and lymphocytes. Melatonin is directly related to the seasonal reproductive cycle of humans and is used to regulate the body's clock.
Side effects of melatonin on testicular function
Melatonin inhibits androgen production through a variety of mechanisms, with one involving the inhibition of CRH and mel1a receptors. Melatonin has also been shown to inhibit the proliferation and oxidative state of Leydig cells in infertile men. Its effects on testicular cells have yet to be fully understood. While the mechanism is not completely understood, it does seem to have some role in regulating testicular function.
In one study, a high concentration of melatonin decreased the number of MCs in the seminiferous tubules of men with hypospermatogenesis. In another study, melatonin reduced mRNA levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in the testicles. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that melatonin may have adverse effects on male fertility.
Protective effects of melatonin on sperm
Melatonin is a phytohormone with important functions in testicular function, such as anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress. In animal studies, it improved semen quality. In humans, melatonin was associated with reduced DNA damage in sperm. In one study, melatonin levels in seminal plasma were positively correlated with sperm DNA damage in infertile rats. However, other parameters were not associated with melatonin and sperm DNA damage in these men. In addition, Awad et al. found a strong association between low melatonin levels and reduced sperm motility in male rats with iOAT.
However, if melatonin affects the health of the testicles, this could potentially have implications for male fertility. Melatonin increases the volume of ejaculate, but it does not affect the levels of Anti-Mullerian hormone or inhibin A in the seminal plasma. Inhibin A levels in the seminal plasma were correlated with ejaculate volume, while those in control rams showed no difference in these levels.